Epithelia as hormone and drug receptors

a tribute to H. H. Ussing, on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday.

Publisher: Springer-Verlag in New York

Written in English
Published: Pages: 354 Downloads: 180
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Subjects:

  • Epithelium.,
  • Receptors, Hormone.,
  • Receptors, Drug.

Edition Notes

SeriesJournal of membrane biology -- v. 40, special issue.
ContributionsUssing, H. H. 1911-
The Physical Object
Paginationvi, 354 p. :
Number of Pages354
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14178791M

intracellular effect of drug-receptor interaction lasts longer than the drug-receptor interaction itself (c) Spare receptors influence the maximal efficacy of the drug-receptor system (d) Spare receptors activate the effector machinery of the cell without the need for a drug (e) Spare receptors may be detected by the finding that the EC   In order to enter a cell, a virus must attach to a specific receptor site on the plasma membrane of the host cell. The proteins on the surface of the virus act as keys which fit exactly into a matching glycoprotein on the host cell membrane. Expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is widespread but may vary depending on the developmental stage of the animal, and therefore may differentially influence phenotypic function. Thus, the major role of the 1,dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]/VDR system is to regulate mineral and skeletal ho . The hormone binds to its receptor in the cytosol, forming a receptor–hormone complex. The receptor–hormone complex then enters the nucleus and binds to the target gene on the DNA. Transcription of the gene creates a messenger RNA that is translated into the desired protein within the cytoplasm. Pathways Involving Cell Membrane Hormone Receptors.

  • Nearly 40%of the drugs approved for marketing by the FDA target GPCRs. • Future discoveries will reveal new GPCR drugs, in part because it is relatively easy to screen for pharmacologic agents that access these receptors and stimulate or block receptor mediated biochemical or physiological responses. Thank You. This review considers how these different transport processes contribute to the generation of transmembrane folate gradients and to vectorial flows of folates across epithelia. The role of folate transporters in mouse development, as assessed by homologous deletion of folate receptors and the reduced folate carrier, is described.   “Sugar activates the opiate receptors in our brain and affects the reward center, which leads to compulsive behavior, despite the negative consequences like weight gain, headaches, hormone. In renal epithelia, vasopressin influences salt and water transport, chiefly via vasopressin V2 receptors (V2Rs) linked to adenylyl cyclase. A combination of vasopressin-induced effects along sever.

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Daly JW. Adenosine receptors: targets for future drugs. J Med Chem. Mar; 25 (3)– Daly JW, Padgett W, Seamon KB. Activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems in brain membranes and slices by the diterpene forskolin: augmentation of receptor-mediated responses. J Cited by: The secretions of endocrine glands are called hormones.

Hormones are released into the interstitial fluid, diffused into the bloodstream, and delivered to targets, in other words, cells that have receptors to bind the hormones. The endocrine system is part of a major regulatory system coordinating the regulation and integration of body responses.

Stimulation of dopamine receptors in the lung or kidney epithelia has distinct and opposite effects on the function of Na,K-ATPase, which results in increased Na + absorption across the alveolar epithelium and increased sodium excretion via the kidney epithelium.

In the lung, dopamine increases Na,K-ATPase by increasing cell basolateral surface expression of Na +,K +-ATPase molecules, whereas Cited by: Hormone receptor expression has guided hormonal therapy in breast cancer for decades, and could present an opportunity for similar targeted treatment in ovarian cancer.

Thus, expression of ERs, PRs and other hormone receptors has been investigated in both HGSOC and LGSOC [7,32,33]. Hormone receptor expression tends to be higher in LGSOC than Author: I.A. Voutsadakis. The Receptors book Series, founded in the ’s, is a broad-based and well-respected series on all aspects of receptor neurophysiology.

The series presents published volumes that comprehensively review neural receptors for a specific hormone or neurotransmitter by invited leading specialists.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disease with painful clinical manifestations and high risks of cancerization. With no curativ. fractions from natural extracts that contained steroid or thyroid hormones [8].

Glucocorticoid Receptor Research Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) drug discovery was initiated by adrenal gland extracts. These tissue extracts were used by clinicians to treat Addison s disease (glucocorti-coid deficiency) [9].

Binding of drugs to receptors Binding of drugs to receptors necessarily obeys the Law of Mass Action. At equilibrium, receptor occupancy is related to drug concentration by the Hill-Langmuir equation.

The higher the affinity of the drug for the receptor, the lower the concentration at which it produces a given level of occupancy. The book will be clearly valuable for both academic and industrial groups engaged in drug discovery." (Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, March ) "This is an excellent book for scientists interested in adding or expanding expertise in nuclear receptor drug discovery to their skill set.

Cells' receptors are very specialized and there are in fact hundreds of different types of receptors. Most respond to chemical substances such as hormones, drugs or allergens, while some even respond to pressure or light (your body produces vitamin D, the "sunshine hormone.

Methods. We studied cell signaling, proliferation and migration using an immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line and primary human corneal fibroblasts in also Epithelia as hormone and drug receptors book whether insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a hormone known to mediate many of HGH’s growth promoting actions, may play a role in this effect.

Aldosterone is a uniquely terrestrial hormone, first appearing in lungfish, which have both gills and lungs. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), on the other hand, evolved much earlier, and are found in cartilaginous and bony fish, presumptive ligand cortisol.

MRs have equivalent high affinity for al. Hormones are chemical substances produced in one organ that are released into the bloodstream and affect the function of a target organ. For the target organ to respond to a particular hormone, it must: a. have the same genetic makeup b.

have receptors that recognize and bind to the hormone molecule. In epithelia, they are found in both the basolateral and the luminal membranes. Their widespread luminal expression in nearly all transporting epithelia and their effect on transport are summarized.

The P2Y 2 receptor is a prominent luminal receptor in many epithelia. Other luminal P2 receptors include the P2X 7, P2Y 4, and P2Y 6 receptors. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has become a mainstay medical treatment option for management of gender dysphoria in transgender patients of both biologic sexes.

Very little is known about the long-term effects of steroid hormone modulation on breast tissue in this population. Most of the data available on the effects of HRT on breast and reproductive tissues come from studies of. Abstract: Ligand gated ionotropic receptors are responsible for the fast neurotransmission in the brain and are the target of widely used drugs, such as anxiolytics, anticonvulsant and antidepressant, and of endogenously produced substances, e.g.

hormones. In this review, the fast regulatory effects of thyroid hormones (THs; T3 and T4) on. Steroid binding studies have identified two novel putative corticosteroid receptors in intestinal epithelia, and molecular cloning studies have detected two low-affinity receptors in small intestine that are activated by corticosteroids and induce CYP3A gene expression.

Andres J.P. Klein-Szanto, Claudio J. Conti, in Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Second Edition), f. Steroid Hormones. The presence of enzymes involved in the metabolism of steroid hormones such as androgens, estrogens, progesterone and glucocorticoids has been shown in the skin; e.g., the production of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone has been demonstrated in human skin.

the first-generation evolution of this drug and setting the stage for later syntheses of potent synthetic steroids such as prednisolone and dexamethasone. A similar history was observed with the first generation of drugs that targeted other steroid receptors.

It was known as early as that ovariectomy could decrease the incidence of. Growth hormone receptor blockers are drugs that bind to the growth hormone receptor and make it non-functional.

As a result growth hormone cannot exert its effect. These agents are used to control acromegaly. List of Growth hormone receptor blockers: View by Brand | Generic.

Hormone therapy is only likely to work if the breast cancer cells have oestrogen receptors (ER). Your doctor checks your cancer cells for these receptors when you are diagnosed.

Around 7 out of 10 breast cancers (70%) have oestrogen receptors. They are called oestrogen receptor positive cancer or ER positive cancer. When you have hormone therapy. Background. Nuclear receptor families play a pivotal role in regulating genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition.

Pregnane X receptor (PXR, also termed SXR, PAR, and NR1I2 as its gene name) is a crucial regulator of various phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes and drug is expressed in liver, small intestine and other organs.

David J. Morris, Andrew S. Brem, in Encyclopedia of Hormones, II.C Central Nervous System Effects. Mineralocorticoids also exert their effects on blood pressure through actions in the brain.

Although mineralocorticoid receptors have been observed in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, their role was difficult to determine until relatively recently. Alpha-1 receptors are usually located on target cells and have excitatory effects on them; consequently, blockage of alpha-1 receptors usually results in blocking some of the effects of norepinephrine.

Drugs such as phentolamine that act on both types of receptors can produce a complex combination of both effects. In most cases when the term. Well detailed and elaborated book. Peter Ng'eno - Nairobi.

Drugs and Synaptic Function. nerves cytoplasm digestive effects energy enzymes example extends factors fibers Figure flow fluid functions glands glucose head heart hormones important increase individual inferior internal intestine involved ions joint known lateral layer Reviews: 1.

Estrogen receptors belong to the family of steroid hormone receptors and its main mechanism of action is a transcription factor ().There are two different forms of ER, ER-alpha and ER-beta, encoded by ESR1 and ESR2, is substantial sequence homology between ER-alpha and ER-beta, although the function of ER-beta is less known.

IGF-1 is produced primarily by the liver as an endocrine hormone as well as in target tissues in a paracrine/autocrine fashion. Production is stimulated by growth hormone (GH) and can be retarded by undernutrition, growth hormone insensitivity, lack of growth hormone receptors, or failures of the downstream signaling pathway post GH receptor including SHP2 and STAT5B.

Receptors Responsible for Signal Transduction. There are 4 Classes of Signal Transducing Receptors: 1. Enzyme-Linked Receptors (Receptor Kinases) • have intrinsic enzymatic activity or are associated with an intracellular enzyme.

GPCRs (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors) • couple to GTP binding proteins (G-proteins) inside the cell to activate. Abstract: The 1,25D 3-MARRS receptor is bioidentical with protein disulfide isomerase A3, and has been demonstrated to be required for the rapid, pregenomic actions of the steroid hormone 1,25D 3 on calcium and phosphate uptake in a number of tissues.

In this review we discuss the role of this receptor as it relates to the recent advances in calcium and phosphate transport along with its role. More broadly, there appears to be a universal role for mesenchymal hormone signalling in the development of both male and female reproductive organs, with expression of the appropriate hormone receptors in adjacent stroma critical for subsequent organ-specific responses to oestrogen, progesterone, and testosterone [62,63,64,65].

These hormones bind to cell surface (plasma mem­brane) receptors and stimulate the release of certain molecules, namely the second messengers which in turn, perform the biochemical functions.

Thus, hormones themselves are lipophobic in nature, usually trans­ported in the free form and possess short half-lives (in minutes).F.

Tronche, in Encyclopedia of Stress (Second Edition), Inactivation of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor Gene Leads to Type I Pseudohypoaldosteronism. Mineralocorticoid hormone (aldosterone) is a key element in homeostatic sodium balance control, activating MR in the polarized cells of sodium-transporting epithelia (distal part of the nephron, colon, salivary, and sweat glands).

Despite hormone therapy is widely used (as both adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy) for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer and patients receiving hormone therapy often show satisfactory initial response, resistance to selective estrogen modulators and aromatase inhibitors is frequently found in patients after prolonged treatment.